124 SHIPPING PRACTICE CITRUS FRUIT— From Africa, West Indies, United States of America, Atlantic islands, and Mediterranean ports, 68 cub. ft. In cases. Each case weighs 80 lb., and 17 standard cases measure I ton. DEALS, BOARDS, AND BATTENS— Measured and carried by the standard of 165 cub. ft. per standard. ESPARTO GRASS— In bales. Unpressed, 120 cub. ft. Semi-pressed, 90 cub. ft. From Southern Europe and North Africa. FRUIT PULP— From the colonies. In tins, 40-45 cub. ft. GRAIN— Wheat from the temperate climates. Maize from the sub-tropical climates. Wheat shipped from Canada (St. Lawrence), Northern Range ports of the United States of America, Danube, and Karachi. Shipped in bags or bulk. Wheat in bags, 50 cub. ft.; in bulk, 45 cub. ft. Maize in bags, 55 cub. ft.; in bulk, 48-52 cub. ft. Barley in bags, 70-75 cub. ft.; in bulk, 60-65 cub. ft. Oats in bags, 70 cub. ft.; in bulk, 60 cub. ft. (clipped oats). Oats in bags, 80 cub. ft.; in bulk, 70 cub. ft. (unclipped oats). GROUND NUTS (KERNELS)— West Africa, Madras Coast. In bags, 65-68 cub. ft. HIDES— River Plate, South Africa, Australia, and China. Places where large cattle ranches are in existence usually ship hides, with the exception of Canada, where, although ranches are abundant, few shipments of hides are made. Similarly, where wool is shipped it is usual to find large quantities of mutton and lamb being exported, but one exception to this generalization is South Africa, where, although quantities of wool are shipped, little meat is exported, Here the sheep are bred for the production of wool, and the meat is credited to be too tough and untasty to secure a reasonable market. Measurements of hides are— Wet, 45-50 cub, ft. Dry, 180-200 cub. ft. Salted in barrels, 55^60 cub. ft. African non-pressed, 86 cub. ft. Pressed, 22 cub. ft. Indian hides are carried on scale.